acb_calc.h – calculus with complex-valued functions

This module provides functions for operations of calculus over the complex numbers (intended to include root-finding, integration, and so on).

Types, macros and constants


Typedef for a pointer to a function with signature:

int func(acb_ptr out, const acb_t inp, void * param, slong order, slong prec)

implementing a univariate complex function \(f(x)\). When called, func should write to out the first order coefficients in the Taylor series expansion of \(f(x)\) at the point inp, evaluated at a precision of prec bits. The param argument may be used to pass through additional parameters to the function. The return value is reserved for future use as an error code. It can be assumed that out and inp are not aliased and that order is positive.


void acb_calc_cauchy_bound(arb_t bound, acb_calc_func_t func, void * param, const acb_t x, const arb_t radius, slong maxdepth, slong prec)

Sets bound to a ball containing the value of the integral

\[C(x,r) = \frac{1}{2 \pi r} \oint_{|z-x| = r} |f(z)| dz = \int_0^1 |f(x+re^{2\pi i t})| dt\]

where f is specified by (func, param) and r is given by radius. The integral is computed using a simple step sum. The integration range is subdivided until the order of magnitude of b can be determined (i.e. its error bound is smaller than its midpoint), or until the step length has been cut in half maxdepth times. This function is currently implemented completely naively, and repeatedly subdivides the whole integration range instead of performing adaptive subdivisions.


int acb_calc_integrate_taylor(acb_t res, acb_calc_func_t func, void * param, const acb_t a, const acb_t b, const arf_t inner_radius, const arf_t outer_radius, slong accuracy_goal, slong prec)

Computes the integral

\[I = \int_a^b f(t) dt\]

where f is specified by (func, param), following a straight-line path between the complex numbers a and b which both must be finite.

The integral is approximated by piecewise centered Taylor polynomials. Rigorous truncation error bounds are calculated using the Cauchy integral formula. More precisely, if the Taylor series of f centered at the point m is \(f(m+x) = \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} a_n x^n\), then

\[\int f(m+x) = \left( \sum_{n=0}^{N-1} a_n \frac{x^{n+1}}{n+1} \right) + \left( \sum_{n=N}^{\infty} a_n \frac{x^{n+1}}{n+1} \right).\]

For sufficiently small x, the second series converges and its absolute value is bounded by

\[\sum_{n=N}^{\infty} \frac{C(m,R)}{R^n} \frac{|x|^{n+1}}{N+1} = \frac{C(m,R) R x}{(R-x)(N+1)} \left( \frac{x}{R} \right)^N.\]

It is required that any singularities of f are isolated from the path of integration by a distance strictly greater than the positive value outer_radius (which is the integration radius used for the Cauchy bound). Taylor series step lengths are chosen so as not to exceed inner_radius, which must be strictly smaller than outer_radius for convergence. A smaller inner_radius gives more rapid convergence of each Taylor series but means that more series might have to be used. A reasonable choice might be to set inner_radius to half the value of outer_radius, giving roughly one accurate bit per term.

The truncation point of each Taylor series is chosen so that the absolute truncation error is roughly \(2^{-p}\) where p is given by accuracy_goal (in the future, this might change to a relative accuracy). Arithmetic operations and function evaluations are performed at a precision of prec bits. Note that due to accumulation of numerical errors, both values may have to be set higher (and the endpoints may have to be computed more accurately) to achieve a desired accuracy.

This function chooses the evaluation points uniformly rather than implementing adaptive subdivision.