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Arb example programs, rigorous calculus

September 26, 2013

I have starting adding example programs to Arb. Right now the following programs are available:

See the documentation page for more detailed descriptions and some sample output.

I will talk a bit more about the last example program. It is is based on the module fmprb_calc which I’ve just added to Arb. Quoting from the documentation page:

This module provides functions for operations of calculus over the real numbers (intended to include root-finding, optimization, integration, and so on). It is planned that the module will include two types of algorithms:

Right now, the fmprb_calc module contains a few algorithms for rigorously finding the roots of real analytic functions. I hope to find the time to add numerical integration soon. Expect a complex analysis module to appear in the future too (the complex counterpart should eventually be much more powerful, as it will be able to use the omnipotent Cauchy integral formula and other magic tricks).

For now, using the root-finding routines takes a bit of work. It’s quite difficult to write a black-box algorithm that does what the user expects: you’ll always have some tradeoffs (for example, if convergence seems slow, should it fail early and give the user the chance to try something else, or should it try hard to solve the problem but possibly waste a lot of time; should it be optimized for one type of input or the other?). So my philosophy here is to implement several algorithms that give precise control over what goes on, and let the user connect them in the most appropriate way for a given situation. The real_roots program shows one way to do this. I’m lazily copying its description from the documentation page:

This program isolates the roots of a function on the interval $(a,b)$ (where $a$ and $b$ are input as double-precision literals) using the routines in the fmprb_calc module. The program takes the following arguments:

real_roots function a b [-refine d] [-verbose] [-maxdepth n] [-maxeval n] [-maxfound n] [-prec n]

The following functions (specified by an integer code) are implemented:

* 0 – $Z(x)$ (Riemann-Siegel Z-function)
* 1 – $\sin(x)$
* 2 – $\sin(x^2)$
* 3 – $\sin(1/x)$

The following options are available:

With function 0, the program isolates roots of the Riemann zeta function on the critical line, and guarantees that no roots are missed (there are more efficient ways to do this, but it is a nice example):

> build/examples/real_roots 0 0.0 50.0 -verbose
interval: 25 +/- 25
maxdepth = 30, maxeval = 100000, maxfound = 100000, low_prec = 30
found isolated root in: 14.12353515625 +/- 0.012207
found isolated root in: 21.0205078125 +/- 0.024414
found isolated root in: 25.0244140625 +/- 0.024414
found isolated root in: 30.43212890625 +/- 0.012207
found isolated root in: 32.9345703125 +/- 0.024414
found isolated root in: 37.5732421875 +/- 0.024414
found isolated root in: 40.9423828125 +/- 0.024414
found isolated root in: 43.32275390625 +/- 0.012207
found isolated root in: 48.01025390625 +/- 0.012207
found isolated root in: 49.76806640625 +/- 0.012207
---------------------------------------------------------------
Found roots: 10
Subintervals possibly containing undetected roots: 0
Function evaluations: 3425
cpu/wall(s): 1.22 1.229
virt/peak/res/peak(MB): 20.63 20.66 2.23 2.23

Find just one root and refine it to approximately 75 digits:

> build/examples/real_roots 0 0.0 50.0 -maxfound 1 -refine 75
interval: 25 +/- 25
maxdepth = 30, maxeval = 100000, maxfound = 1, low_prec = 30
refined root:
14.134725141734693790457251983562470270784257115699243175685567460149963429809 +/- 8.4532e-81

---------------------------------------------------------------
Found roots: 1
Subintervals possibly containing undetected roots: 8
Function evaluations: 992
cpu/wall(s): 0.41 0.415
virt/peak/res/peak(MB): 20.76 20.76 2.23 2.23

Find roots of $\sin(x^2)$ on $(0,100)$. The algorithm cannot isolate the root at $x = 0$ (it is at the endpoint of the interval, and in any case a root of multiplicity higher than one). The failure is reported:

> build/examples/real_roots 2 0 100
interval: 50 +/- 50
maxdepth = 30, maxeval = 100000, maxfound = 100000, low_prec = 30
---------------------------------------------------------------
Found roots: 3183
Subintervals possibly containing undetected roots: 1
Function evaluations: 34058
cpu/wall(s): 0.26 0.263
virt/peak/res/peak(MB): 20.73 20.76 1.72 1.72

This does not miss any roots:

> build/examples/real_roots 2 1 100
interval: 50.5 +/- 49.5
maxdepth = 30, maxeval = 100000, maxfound = 100000, low_prec = 30
---------------------------------------------------------------
Found roots: 3183
Subintervals possibly containing undetected roots: 0
Function evaluations: 34039
cpu/wall(s): 0.26 0.266
virt/peak/res/peak(MB): 20.73 20.76 1.70 1.70

Looking for roots of $\sin(1/x)$ on $(0,1)$, the algorithm finds many roots, but will never find all of them since there are infinitely many:

> build/examples/real_roots 3 0.0 1.0
interval: 0.5 +/- 0.5
maxdepth = 30, maxeval = 100000, maxfound = 100000, low_prec = 30
---------------------------------------------------------------
Found roots: 10198
Subintervals possibly containing undetected roots: 24695
Function evaluations: 202587
cpu/wall(s): 1.73 1.731
virt/peak/res/peak(MB): 21.84 22.89 2.76 2.76

Arbitrary-precision ball arithmetic is not ideal for root-isolation: most of the time double precision interval arithmetic would be much faster. But it does work, even if you really try to push it. For example, if you increase the default termination bounds, it will find all the 318309 roots of $\sin(x^2)$ on the interval $1 < x < 1000$ (proving that no others exist) in 25 seconds:

> build/examples/real_roots 2 1.0 1000.0
    -maxeval 10000000 -maxfound 1000000 -maxdepth 40 -prec 53
interval: 500.5 +/- 499.5
maxdepth = 40, maxeval = 10000000, maxfound = 1000000, low_prec = 53
—————————————————————
Found roots: 318309
Subintervals possibly containing undetected roots: 0
Function evaluations: 3230804
cpu/wall(s): 25.23 25.256
virt/peak/res/peak(MB): 31.56 38.64 12.54 12.54

Finally, very high precision is no problem (computing a million digits of $\sqrt{\pi}$ as a root of $\sin(x^2)$ finishes in less than 20 seconds):

> build/examples/real_roots 2 1.0 2.0 -refine 1000000 -verbose
interval: 1.5 +/- 0.5
maxdepth = 30, maxeval = 100000, maxfound = 100000, low_prec = 30
found isolated root in: 1.875 +/- 0.125
after bisection 1: 1.76953125 +/- 0.0039062
after bisection 2: 1.7723388671875 +/- 0.00012207
newton initial accuracy: 12
newton step: wp = 18 + 10 = 28
newton step: wp = 31 + 10 = 41
newton step: wp = 56 + 10 = 66
newton step: wp = 107 + 10 = 117
newton step: wp = 208 + 10 = 218
newton step: wp = 411 + 10 = 421
newton step: wp = 817 + 10 = 827
newton step: wp = 1628 + 10 = 1638
newton step: wp = 3250 + 10 = 3260
newton step: wp = 6494 + 10 = 6504
newton step: wp = 12982 + 10 = 12992
newton step: wp = 25958 + 10 = 25968
newton step: wp = 51911 + 10 = 51921
newton step: wp = 103816 + 10 = 103826
newton step: wp = 207626 + 10 = 207636
newton step: wp = 415247 + 10 = 415257
newton step: wp = 830489 + 10 = 830499
newton step: wp = 1660973 + 10 = 1660983
newton step: wp = 3321941 + 10 = 3321951

1.77245385 [omitting huge string of digits] 3729443 +/- 3.9829e-1000007

---------------------------------------------------------------
Found roots: 1
Subintervals possibly containing undetected roots: 0
Function evaluations: 46
cpu/wall(s): 18.3 18.322
virt/peak/res/peak(MB): 35.12 48.81 16.30 29.85